Thursday, December 12, 2019

The Importance of Attachment free essay sample

Early Relationships play an important role in the development of children’s behaviours. Building relationships as early as possible is very important. One way of doing this is bonding. This happens in very early infancy and is critical to growth and development. Parents need to be aware of the importance of interacting and communicating with their baby from the earliest days. Bonding early shapes how the brain develops, this will later determine their health and wellbeing. This bonding will help them to be able to adapt to their surrounding and this will also impact on their ability to form positive relationships. For some children that are in care or from difficult families, their attachments may not be formed as easily as those who do not have the same circumstances. There are many theories that have evidence supporting bonding and attachment. Mary Ainsworth and her colleagues were interested in studying the reactions of babies when the parents/carers left and returned to rooms. They came up with three different theories : Anxious avoidant- The baby ignores parents and shows little sign of distress when the parent leaves, they continue to play. The baby ignores the parent when they return. The baby doesn’t like being alone but can be comforted by a stranger. These children do not show a preference between their main carer and a complete stranger. Research suggests that this may be a result of care that is abusive or neglectful. Children will not seek help and support from their carer if they have experienced punishment for doing so before. Securely Attached- Baby plays while parents are present but shows visible distress when parents leave and they no longer play. The baby is easily comforted when parent returns and will continue playing. Baby will cry when alone because the parents aren’t there but can be partly comforted by strangers. These children are able to show independence and will react positively when their parents return. These children are confident that their parents will return and are also confident that their parents will provide comfort when they are in need of it and will approach their parents for reassurance. Anxious – resistant- Baby is wary and explores the room less that other behaviour types but is very distressed when parents leave and will resist strangers attempt to comfort. They want immediate contact with parents on return but baby will show frustration and anger alongside clinginess for example wanting to be picked up and held but then immediately struggling to get down. These children are very distressed when left with strangers and are not easily comforted when parents return. This attachment style is fairly uncommon and research suggests that it is the result of the carer not being available to the child when needed. Further research then when on to show that children who presented the secure attachment then went on to develop better intellectually and socially that the others. Ainsworth believed like Bowlby that the quality of the attachment the child forms depends on the quality of care from the main carer and how sensitive the parents and carers are to the child’s needs. Another theory behind attachment and bonding is John Bowlby’s theory of attachment. Bowlby believed in something called â€Å"Monotropy† This is the theory that babies need to form one main attachment and that this relationship would be special and of more importance to the child than any other. Bowlby suggested that in most cases this relationship would be formed with the mother, but that it could be formed with the father or another person. This worked alongside his other theory known as the â€Å"Critical period†, he believed that babies needed to have developed their main attachment by the age of one year and that during the child’s first four years prolonged separation from this main carer would cause long term psychological damage. Bowlby believed that children â€Å"need parenting† and he showed this through findings and research. Simply meeting a child’s physical and care needs is not enough for healthy growth and development. Children need to have a main attachment in their early lives that will give them constant support. He also identified that children show distress when they are separated from their main carer and this is often referred to as â€Å"separation anxiety† he linked this with the fact adults that had been separated from their mothers in infancy would then go on to not be able to form deep and lasting relationships. This was known as â€Å"Maternal deprivation. † Another theory was researched by a pair called Robertsonamp;Robertson. In the 1940’s they looked at the short-term effects of deprivation when parents were not allowed to visit their children in hospital as they were told that it would be too upsetting for the child. This meant long term periods in hospital formed a kind of deprivation for the child. The pair looked at how children coped with being separated from their mothers and carried out observations and filmed the reactions of the children. Children showed extreme distress when the mothers left with a great deal of crying. The children were unhappy and would not take part in normal play activities. Finally the children would begin to play again but when their mothers returned thy either ignored them or rejected their attention. Robertson and Robertson came up with the idea that during the separation the children were very distressed and when they returned home they were less attached, less happy and less affectionate as they had been prior to hospital deprivation. This study had a big effect on hospital visiting hours which are now extended meaning parents can even stay in hospital with the children. The children are also prepared for hospital beforehand. Many young children attend nurseries and day centres as part of their daily routine and there is now many studies into whether or not this is harmful to young children. Some studies show that good quality childcare is not damaging to the child if they have a close relationship with their main carers when at home. Michael Rutter was another psychologist that researched privation and the effects on children in care and adopted children. In the 1990’s many Romanian orphanages were understaffed and overcrowded, this lead many western families to adopt the children. Rutter went on to look at the progress of some of these children that were adopted by British families. He compared these orphans with British children who had been adopted to compare the effects of maternal deprivation with privation from neglect. He discovered that initially the Romanian orphans had delayed development and were very underweight whereas the British Children were not. After four years the Romanian and British children’s development was the same. He concluded that children who have had early privation then receive good quality care will have better chance or healthy development. However not all the Romanian children caught up in their development and the effects were more severe for the children who had spent longer time in care. Development of Attachment: Research into attachment has been a big focus to the media and a source of stress. This particularly to mothers who return to work after having a baby. It is very important that the carer and infant develop a strong attachment initially during feeding time and through the physical contact this brings to them both. This will also form when the child is being cuddled, changed and washed. The bond will also depend on how sensitive and responsive the carer is. It has been shown that carers that respond sensitively to the children’s needs in different situations such as crying feeding and play. This will then allow the attachment to be secure. There are many practical ways attachments can be helped in forming. Feeding: This moment when the baby is being fed is special as the baby is relaxed, secure and comforted into the adult. It is very important that during this time the adult focuses on the baby. In some settings they ensure good practice by using the same adult to feed the baby. This will help an attachment to be made. Many parents may talk softly, stroke their baby’s cheeks or head and make eye contact. These behaviours should be copied in early year’s settings. Sensitivity and Responsiveness: The way a parent or Key worker responds to a child seems to be one of the strongest indicators of a strong attachment bond. The adult is tuned into what the baby wants and this means that they can recognise the different types of cries easily and can quickly interpret what the baby wants and needs. Physical Contact: Attachments are also reinforced by the handling of the baby, by cuddling omforting and rocking the baby these are obvious ways parents and key workers can respond to the baby. A lack of physical contact can be damaging for babies so it is considered as good practice for those working in early years settings to spend time responding physically to young children. Time and care-giving: Parents and carers are recognised by babies but they still n eed to spend time with them to build and attachment. Research has shown that responding to the child’s physical needs only does not necessarily guarantee attachment. This could happen simply by passing a toy to a child who is pointing towards it and other things such as bathing and washing. There are four indicators that will present that a child has made a secure attachment, either with carers or in early years settings, here are the four indicators: *The baby will be actively seeking to be near the other person *Crying or showing visible distress when that person leaves or is no longer visible *Showing joy or relief when that person appears or returns. * Awareness of that person’s presence for example looking up at them, responding to their voices and following their movements. Factors affecting children’s behaviour: Transitions: This means a change from one situation into another for example going from year 6 at primary school into a much larger school as a year 7. A child may feel scared, worried excited angry or uncomfortable whilst going through this change and this will affect their behaviour. The child may behave in a way that’d unlike them normally. They may be distant from the rest of the family showing signs in their behaviour such as not leaving their room, not sitting with the family at meal times etc. A child struggling with this change may also not want to go to school; they may complain of illness or may even bunk off school without parents knowing. Being Bullied: Many children will experience this and it can affect children in different ways, some more extreme than others such as taking their own lives and self harm can be results of bullying. In some less extreme situations children may act differently. They may not want to attend school or may fall behind in class as a lack of concentration or from being upset. Bullying happens at different ages and children will react differently. Children may go through bullying of different types such as younger children could be verbal and being left out and older children may begin to go through cyber bullying. The children may feel alone during this time and will not reach out to anyone as they are embarrassed. It is important parents can recognise this sometimes it may be difficult than others but the sooner you can react the better. Children should be monitored when using the computers i. e. ocial networking as this is a big place for younger children that will become venerable to bullying. Living in a reconstituted family: It is very popular in today’s society for families to be made up of different parents such as step parents half brothers and sisters and even grandparents living in family homes. Reconstituted means a family has been broken up and put back together in a different way to make a new family or this could even be two different families. In these families there is at least one child who is not the birth child of both adults. Parents may separate or divorce and they may meet another partner and create a new family. Many children now live with step siblings and parents and half siblings. This can majorly affect a child’s behaviour. The child may feel left out and even replaced. Some parents may not see their birth children as much as the step children they live with. The children could become jealous and try everything to prevent the parents being together. Younger children may react worse such as biting and kicking their step siblings as they may not understand as much as older children. They may feel as if their house has been taken over and will not want to share or spend time with the other children. Older children may argue with the other children and use louder voices and aggressive behaviour towards the siblings or parents. Puberty: Puberty is when the body is beginning to go through a change and this happens at different ages, children as young as 9 can go through this. Children will begin to grow, they will grow hair in places that they are not comfortable with. They will also grow taller and girls will begin to grow breasts. Boys will have deeper voices this will happen to children at different ages. Some children will not experience this until they are older and may feel left out or â€Å"not normal† if other children are going through it. The child’s hormones will be unbalanced and this can cause mood swings. The children may want to be left alone during this time but it is important you explain that you are there for them if need be. Girls may begin their menstrual cycle and this can be a very confusing and embarrassing time. This may affect younger children in a negative way as they may not understand what is happening to them, older children will have the understanding as they will be learning at school and parents may be talking to them getting them familiar with puberty. The children may behave aggressively towards parents if they haven’t received the support they needed during this time. Having a communication difficulty: Children may have difficulties communicating this could be through different ways such as; Hearing difficulties, speech and language and even sight difficulties. The child may struggle during this period of time if the need is not recognisable. The child may feel ignored and will easily become frustrated. The child will not feel comfortable and will be upset if their needs are not met. Children may not achieve academically if they are not supported with their needs. Younger children may not be able to express how they feel so will refuse any support for a while whereas older children may act aggressively towards the help. Over critical parents: Some children may live in families where the parents are very hard to please and will criticise whatever the child does. The child will be seen as not good enough for the parents. Children thrive on praise and recognition and research has shown the more of this apparent in children’s lives the more likely they are to do well and have top paid jobs and good education. The children that have little of this will feel upset that their parents are ashamed of them. Whatever they do is not good enough so will not put effort into doing good things and may turn this into negativity and rebel against the parents. Older children may Sercombe to peer pressure such as drugs and alcohol and shop lifting. This may be their way of receiving attention from their parents. Although the attention is negative it is still need by the child who will continue doing these bad things. Many parents will be strict with the children and push them into doing things they do not want to do but the parents will thrive off of this. Children may not be congratulated for exam and test results so will feel as if they are not important and will eventually not do their best in them.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Silver Bullet Problems Of Modern Warfare -Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Silver Bullet To The Problems Of Modern Warfare? Answer: Introduction The major advantage of using technology in military warfare is that it helps in making the weapons more accurate in nature along with the capability of increasing the level of communication. Technology also allows the military personnel in flying and shooting the opponents in bad weather conditions where the visibility may be poor. The disadvantages of using technology are that the infantry of military bases become more dependent on the telescopes that are made for the modern rifles. The use of technology is also costly in nature that has to be borne by the government of the country (Bellamy 2015). SAF has been using technology in their system so that it can eliminate all the possible threats that may arise from the neighboring countries. They are using automation so that it can help in the reduction of manpower. The use of artificial intelligence has helped them in monitoring the naval operations so that the waters can be protected (Tan and Lew 2017). Technology will not be able to resolve all the challenges in the military, as it will not be able to understand the emotions of the civilians. The future warfare will be based on technology but has to be limited so that the human emotions can also be considered. The humans are not divorced from warfare, as they are the ones who are building the technology that will help in supporting modern warfare. Reference List Bellamy, C., 2015.The evolution of modern land warfare: theory and practice(Vol. 3). Routledge. Tan, F.W.S. and Lew, P.B., 2017. The Role of the Singapore Armed Forces in Forging National Values, Image, and Identity.Military Review,97(2), p.8.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Aether Definition in Alchemy and Science

Aether Definition in Alchemy and Science There are two related science definitions for the term aether, as well as other non-scientific meanings. (1) Aether was the fifth element in alchemical chemistry  and early physics. It was the name given to the material that was believed to fill the universe beyond the terrestrial sphere. The belief in aether as an element was held by medieval alchemists, Greeks, Buddhists, Hindus, the Japanese, and the Tibetan Bon. Ancient Babylonians believed the fifth element to be the sky. The fifth element in the Chinese Wu-Xing was metal rather than aether.(2) Aether was also considered the medium that carried light waves in space by 18th and 19th Century scientists. Luminiferous ether was proposed in order to explain the capacity of light to propagate through apparently empty space. The Michelson-Morley experiment (MMX) led scientists to realize there was no aether and that light was self-propagating. Michelson-Morley Experiment and Aether The MMX experiment was performed at what is now Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio in 1887 by Albert A. Michelson and Edward Morley. The experiment used an interferometer to compare the speed of light in perpendicular directions. The point of the experiment was to determine the relative motion of matter through the aether wind or luminiferous aether. It was believed light required a medium in order to move, similar to the way sound waves require a medium (e.g., water or air) to propagate. Since it was known light could travel in a vacuum, it was believed the vacuum must be filled with a substance called aether. Since the Earth would revolve around the Sun through the aether, there would be a relative motion between the Earth and the aether (the aether wind). Thus, the speed of light would be affected by whether the light was moving in the direction of the Earths orbit or perpendicular to it. The negative results were published in the same year and followed up with exp eriments of increased sensitivity. The MMX experiment led to the development of the theory of special relativity, which does not rely on any aether for the propagation of electromagnetic radiation. The Michelson-Morley experiment is considered to be the most famous failed experiment. (3) The word aether or ether may be used to describe apparently empty space. In Homeric Greek, the word aether refers to the clear sky or pure air. It was believed to be the pure essence breathed by gods, while man required air to breathe. In the modern usage, aether simply refers to invisible space (e.g., I lost my email to the aether.) Alternate Spellings: Æther, ether, luminous aether, luminiferous aether, aether wind, light-bearing ether Commonly Confused With: Aether is not the same thing as the chemical substance, ether, which is the name given to a class of compounds containing an ether group. An ether group consists of an oxygen atom connected to two aryl groups or alkyl groups. Aether Symbol in Alchemy Unlike many alchemical elements, aether does not have a commonly accepted symbol. Most often, it was represented by a simple circle.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Cassandras Rantâ€Comedic Female Monologue

Cassandra's Rant- Comedic Female Monologue This funny monologue for actresses comes from an educational comedy play called The Greatest Play Ever Written by Wade Bradford. Written in 2011, the premise of the play is that the narrator attempts to write the greatest play ever by combining all the major literary elements: conflict, genre, character, irony, symbolism. The scene that includes Cassandras monologue is  a comic mash-up that pokes fun at various characters and situations famed in  Greek mythology. The complete script is available at  Heuer Plays.   Character Introduction- Cassandra According to ancient legends, Cassandra could predict the future, yet no one ever believed her. According to Greek mythology, she was the daughter of King Priam and Queen Hecuba of Troy. Legend also has it that Apollo gave her the ability to tell prophecy to seduce her, but when she still refused he cursed her so that no one would believe her prophecies.   She foretold that Pariss capture of Helen would cause the famed Trojan War and the destruction of her city. But since the Trojans welcomed Helen, Cassandra was seen as misunderstood or even a mad woman. Monologue Summary and Analysis In this scene, Cassandra is at a party in the city of Troy. While everyone around her celebrates the marriage of Paris and Helen, Cassandra can feel that something is not right. She mentions: All is twisted and sour- and I am not just talking about the fruit punch. Can you not see all of the signs? Cassandra complains about all of the ominous signs around her by pointing out the ironic behavior of the party guests around her, such as: Hades is the Lord of the Dead, yet hes the life of the party ... Prometheus the Titan  gave us the gift of fire, but hes banned smoking. Ares has made peace with the fact that his brother Apollo isnt very bright ... Orpheus only speaks the truth, but he plays a lyre ... And Medusa just got stoned. The play on words and allusion to Greek mythology creates jokes that tend to be a crowd-pleaser, especially for literature geeks who dont take themselves too seriously. Finally, Cassandra ends the monologue by saying, We are all doomed to die. The Greeks are preparing an attack. They will lay siege to this city and destroy this city and everyone within these walls shall perish by flame and arrow and sword. Oh, and youre out of napkins. The mixture of contemporary colloquial speech and dramatic presentation reserved for Greek plays creates a comedic juxtaposition. Plus, the contrast between the gravity of everyone being doomed to die with the triviality of having no napkins finishes the monologue with a humorous touch.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

GANGS AND GANG SUBCULTURES CJM 330 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5250 words

GANGS AND GANG SUBCULTURES CJM 330 - Essay Example Among the various areas of the US, the region of Los Angeles is deemed to be crowded with considerable number of ganging activities. Contextually, in the present day scenario, there are various gangs operating in the city, out of which, the street gangs are seen to be quite notorious and dangerous (Howell, 2011). Among the major gangs active in Los Angeles today, the Mexican Mafia is regarded as one of the most dangerous gangs. The gang is one of the oldest in the US and work in parallel with other traditional gangs of the country. The gang is quite organized and operates following specific rules made by them. Its major rivals include Black Guerrilla Family and Hispanic gang among others. The gang is primarily formed on grounds of ethnic issues as they claim to protect the integrity and wellbeing of their races thorough their activities. To be noted, the gang has been involved in numerous criminal activities in several decades but in the recent times it became quite active in Los Ang eles. The leader of the group was arrested in the 2012 for involving in activities of drug dealing in the northern area of Los Angeles. Reports also suggest that the gang was also involved in harassing and torturing the black people in southern regions (Inside Prison, n.d.). Conclusively, it can be affirmed that the gang is quite active in Los Angeles with their continuous criminal activities over the last decade. As a matter of concern, the police declared Mexican Mafia, active in Los Angeles, as one of the most dangerous and notorious gangs in comparison to other smaller groups within the community. The primary intention of this particular assignment is to depict the emergence and the growth of traditional gangs in the US over the past decades. Contextually, it has been noted that gangs started to emerge in this particular region of the world during the 1920s and is continually flourishing in the modern day era. The reasons of gang formation

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Exercise research Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Exercise research - Essay Example Please provide answers to the following three (3) questions. The results of your investigations may be, summarised in a table like the one below. A word count of between 300 and 400 words for each answer is required. Please do not exceed the word count, as this will not gain any additional marks. Each answer must include references to each article you have used to answer each question: Please use the Library Portal to find three (3) sources of information that clarifies this claim. Summarise the nature and extent of the problem based on the information you used from your selected articles. There is no doubt that the frequency of computer related fraud and crime had grown in the past few years. One of the rampant and challenging problems is digital piracy of entertainment material and software applications. Craig Kuhl, in his New York Times article, points out the prospects and problems facing the digital media industry in light of threat from piracy and copyright infringement: â€Å"The stakes are high: Worldwide online video revenue is expected to exceed $4.5 billion by 2012, up from $1.2 billion in 2008. And by 2012, according to In-Stat, 90% of U.S. households will have access to broadband, with 94% watching online video. An IMS Research study estimates that by 2013, 255 million TV households worldwide will be watching HDTV and the number of unique HD titles increased by 161% over the first six months of this year, and the number of on-demand orders jumped to 3 billion in 2007. Meanwhile, the Motion Picture Association of America puts annual losses to film piracy at a whopping $18 billion†. (Craig Kuhl, 2008, p.22) Surely, 18 billion dollars is a significant loss to an industry that is also vulnerable to several other risk factors. Other threats to computer systems worldwide come in the form of viruses, worms and Trojan horses. The issue of financial and information losses from these

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Analyzing Level of Development in Hong Kong Essay

Analyzing Level of Development in Hong Kong - Essay Example It is of fascinating to see how Hong Kong has risen to become an economy that is now ranked along with the big wigs of fully developed countries. Development in this context is the maximum utilization of the resources within a given area or country(Haq, 1995). There are multiple universally accepted indicators on how well developed a country is which can either be based on economic factors such as GDP, GNI and PPP, or socio-indicators such as availability and efficiency of public services, provision of health services, accessibility of education among others (Haq 1995). Over the past century to date, Hong Kong has come a long way, for in the nineteen thirties she would have been categorized as an underdeveloped economy. By the start of the Second World War, Hong Kong was still a British colony. On the 25th December 1941, Japan seized her, and occupied the country until August 1945. At the time of the occupation, the Hong Kong economy suffered a great setback. There was rapid inflation and severe food shortages since the Japanese were preserving food for their army. In this harsh environment, there was little economic growth fostered, with advances coming almost to a standstill. In addition, the official currency, the Hong Kong dollar was outlawed and replaced by the Japanese Military Yen. By 1945, the population of Hong Kong had shrunk by half, down front the pre-occupation number of 1.5 million inhabitants (Tsang, 2004). In recent years, Hong Kong has faced challenges and drawbacks at a national level that have had negative impacts on her economy. In 2003, there was an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which led to a drastic decrease in the number of international tourists and a fall in the price of property by 66%.. The bird flu pandemic (H5N1), which had broke out on a full scale around the same time, but had been around for years led to the loss of poultry and chicken by the millions(BEAPA,2008). Another recent setback to the growth of the Hong Kong economy was the Asian financial crisis that occurred between the late part of 1997 and earl 1998. There was a collapse in the stock markets of some south East Asia, Hong Kong being one of them leading to a sharp depreciation in the value of their currencies. These had been preceded by the devaluation of the currencies of the economies involved. It took a while for Hong Kong to regain her momentum from this impediment (Gary,2003). factors that have worked in Hong Kong's favor towards development There are several factors that have fostered Hong Kong's rapid economic growth, one being that the Hong Kong market is friendly and liberal, thus she is quick to adapt to changes in international marketing trends. Her banking system has a rock solid base, she carries minimal public debt and sufficient foreign exchange reserves. These factors are coupled with a strong legal system and a staunch stand taken in fighting corruption (BEAPA, 2008). She has benefited from China's joining the World Trade Organization in that the latter markets her as a growing commercial hub with an amiable business environment,